IN BRIEF: The following articles highlight the need for the use of differential diagnosis of associated psychosocial pathology (specifically Social Anxiety Disorder), so that stuttering may be more accurately researched and treated. There are various self-report questionnaires available to help diagnose SAD. Two of the most popular are the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). It is suggested that the term Stuttered Speech Syndrome be used to classify those people who suffer the interwoven disabilities of stuttering and SAD.
- Terminology – How should stuttering be defined? And why?
- Awareness, Advocacy and Acceptance – Unifying Science with Experience (pdf)
- Recommended Reading
- Other Articles
Terminology – How should stuttering be defined? And why?
To be cited as: Irwin, M (2006). Terminology – How Should Stuttering be Defined? and Why? Published in J. Au-Yeung & M.M. Leahy (Eds.), Research, Treatment, and Self-Help in Fluency Disorders: New Horizons (pp. 41-45). Dublin: The International Fluency Association.
The word stuttering is currently used to describe dysfluent speech, a speech syndrome and the symptoms of a speech disorder. This is confusing resulting in difficulties with public awareness and professional communication. Existing dictionary definitions are very limited in scope, do not mention covert behaviour, and do not always cross reference stuttering with stammering. Academic definitions where they are comprehensive are also cumbersome and there is confusion between the terms covert features, covert symptoms, covert stuttering and interiorized stuttering. A new definition, classification and diagnostic term (Stuttered Speech Syndrome) are proposed. The aim is to provide clarity and allow stuttering to be more easily and accurately discussed from both the listeners and the speakers perspective.
- Stuttering and Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Background Information and Clinical Implications by Larry Molt, from Alabama, USA. International Stuttering Awareness Day Online Conference, 2003.
- American Speech-Language Hearing Association. (1998). Terminology Pertaining to Fluency and Fluency Disorders: Guidelines. ASHA Desk Reference Volume 3. 387-394.
- Kraaimaat, F.W., Vanryckeghem, M. & Van Dam-Baggen, R. (2002). Stuttering and social anxiety. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 27, 319-331.
- Stein, M.B., Baird, A., & Walker, J.R. (1996). Social Phobia in Adults With Stuttering. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(2), 278-280.
- Moutier,C.Y.,& Stein,M.B. (1999). The History,Epidemiology, and Differential Diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry, 60 (supp 9) 4-8.
(Better appreciated with an understanding of the advantage to research design in separating people who stutter with social phobia from those without it.)
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- Meline, T., & Schmitt, J.F. (1997). Case Studies for Evaluating Statistical Significance in Group Designs. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 33-41.
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